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Chiller Efficiency Improvements Proposed for Standard 90.1.
Chiller efficiencies for air and water cooled chillers would be boosted to more than 20 percent under a proposed addendum to the ASHRAE/IES energy standard.

Proposed addendum ch to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings, changes the requirements for air and water cooled chillers as defined in section and the efficiency requirements listed in table 6.8.1C. This change is a continuation of the efficiency improvements that were implemented in 2010 by further improving the efficiency requirements, according to Dick Lord, a member of the committee who developed the proposal through a working team of the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) chiller section.

Addendum ch is open for public review from Nov. 30, 2012,-Jan. 14, 2013. For more information, visit www.ashrae.org/publicreviews.

In 2010, a Path B was added to the standard for part load intensive water cooled chillers. Proposed addendum ch would expand Path B by adding requirements to include air cooled chillers. Also as part of this change, efforts were made to bring the efficiency requirements for water cooled positive displacement and centrifugal chillers together while considering the available technology, and to chillers to be applied at other application conditions where one technology may better suited than the other. If approved, the new efficiency requirements would go into effect on Jan. 1, 2015.

The proposed efficiency requirements in addendum ch increase annual energy savings to 23.1 percent vs. Standard 90.1-2004 and 8.3 percent vs. Standard 90.1-2010. In 2010, the overall weighted average savings resulted in a 16.2 percent improvement in chiller annualized energy use vs. Standard 90.1-2004.

Lord noted the average payback was calculated at 6.3 years, given some units that exceed the scalar limits. Chiller manufacturers are aware of this and know that redesign and cost reduction will be required, but do support the proposal, he said. Lord also noted that we are reaching maximum technological limits at a component level and that in the future the industry will have to look at the full HVAC system for further improvements. AHRI is in the process of forming a new working group to address systems approaches for efficiency improvements and will work closely with Standard 90.1.

In addition, improvements also were made to the requirements to clarify their use. AHRI has recently updated the AHRI 550/590 rating standard that is used for the rating of chillers and its certification program. As part of this effort, AHRI developed a hard metric standard with slightly different rating conditions than the inch pound (I-P) ratings and have released it as AHRI 551/591. For the International System of Units (SI) rating, the change was reflected in the ratings as well as revising the reference to the AHRI rating standard to include AHRI 551/591.

The Standard 90.1 committee also opted to exclude chillers when the leaving condensing temperatures are greater than 115F from the equipment efficiency requirements of Table 6.8.1C. This proposed clarification stems from the fact that high-lift, heat reclaim chiller applications often use a different compressor and sometimes a different refrigerant. The intention of using heat reclaim chillers is to increase system efficiency, but the effect on overall system efficiency cannot be assessed at standard cooling design conditions, Lord said. AHRI is developing rating requirements, test procedures and certification for heat reclaim chillers as well as heat pump chillers.

Also open for public comment from Nov. 30-Jan. 14 is addendum aq that makes minor changes to improve clarity and to address issues identified in sections and

In addition, 15 proposed addenda also are open for public review from Nov. 30 until Dec. 30. They are:

• Addendum bs reduces occupancy threshold for demand controlled ventilation from greater than 40 people per 1000 ft2 to equal to or greater than 25 people per 1000 ft2 with exemptions for certain occupancies.

• Addendum ca requires that vestibule heating be locked out when outside air is above 45F, the same temperature that lockout of freeze protection or ice melting systems is required in section

• Addendum cb to removes the 10,000 cfm threshold for optimum start and adds a threshold for systems controlled by DDC. The addendum also expands the requirement beyond air-based systems so that convectors and radiant systems would be included.

• Addendum cc adds minimum efficiencies for both axial and centrifugal fan evaporative condensers with R-507A as the test fluid to Table 6.8.1G.

• Addendum cd clarifies what to do with piping system accessories that are not in series with the piping circuit that do not have the same heat losses/gains and pressure drop.

• Addendum ce establishes package single zone systems as the baseline HVAC system type for all retail occupancies of two stories and less.

• Addendum cf enables the establishment of a window-to-wall ration for retail strip mall buildings.

• Addendum ck requires the use of dual maximum control for variable air volume zone control when the building has DDC controls.

• Addendum cl updates the IEER values for air-cooled and water-cooled air conditioners and heat pumps above 65,000 Btu/h. Depending on the cooling capacity and product classes, the new IEERs are between 7 and 13 percent better than the values they are replacing. The new IEERs will become effective on Jan. 1, 2016. Note the IEER is a new metric that was developed by AHRI and first implemented in the 2010 standard and is a better representation of the annualized refrigeration system energy use of a typical commercial packaged air conditioner.

• Addendum cn allows laboratory designs that incorporate strategies to reduce peak airflows and minimum unoccupied airflows to document energy savings associated with reduced outside air volumes.

• Addendum co modifies the Lighting Power Densities in Table 9.5.1 to match the recommended light levels in the 10th Edition of the IES Lighting Handbook.

• Addendum cp corrects a value in table 5-5 for steel joist floors.

• Addendum cr modifies Table 9.6.1 to correct the required light levels for hospital corridors, assisted living dining spaces and retail sales spaces.

• Addendum an allows the option to use energy rates either from actual local rates or EIA state data, where approved by the building official when using Appendix C.

• Addendum ar corrects the definitions for walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers.

ASHRAE, founded in 1894, is a building technology society with more than 50,000 members worldwide. The Society and its members focus on building systems, energy efficiency, indoor air quality, refrigeration and sustainability within the industry. Through research, standards writing, publishing and continuing education, ASHRAE shapes tomorrow’s built environment today.

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